The Small-K Advanced DIffractometer SKADI is a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument endorsed to be built at the European Spallation Source ESS. With SKADI investigations of virtually any material can be performed, elucidating the structure in the nanometer to micrometer range. This is especially important for soft-matter and solid state physics, where the self-assembly of polymers, nanoparticles or, as for SARAH, polypeptoides is of interest. Additionally SKADI caters to the need of a wide range of scientific areas, ranging from magnetic structures and physical chemistry over pharmaceutical and medical sciences to biophysics and food science. The drivers for the design of SKADI are completely based in the needs of the scientific community and result in the following properties:
- Flexibility (sample area is approx. 3x3 m2, and versatile collimation) for custom sample environments
- Very small Q by focusing optics, for accessing length scales both in the µm and nm range
- High dynamic Q-range covering three orders of magnitude simultaneously using a two detector system (at least 1E-3 to 1 Å-1 in one shot)
- Polarization for magnetic samples
- High time-resolution together with the high dynamic Q-range will allow for the in-situ investigation of fast, non-reversible processes in a single measurement
The high neutron flux of the ESS together with the high versatility of SKADI to adapt to various science cases in a wide range of field make it both a promising instrument for high-impact research as well as a pinnacle for interdisciplinary research.
The Solid-State Neutron Detector – SoNDe – project aims to develop a high-resolution neutron detector technique that will enable the construction of position-sensitive neutron detectors for high- flux sources, such as the upcoming European Spallation Source (ESS). This includes also the construction of a full-scale prototype as a research and innovation action. Moreover, by avoiding the use of 3He in this detector the 3He-shortage, which might otherwise impede the construction of such large-scale facilities, can be alleviated. The main features of the envisioned detector technique are:
- High-flux capability, capable of handling the peak-flux of up-to-date spallation sources (gain factor of 20 over current detectors)
- High-resolution of 3 mm by single-pixel technique, below by interpolation
- High detection efficiency of 80 % or more
- No beam stop necessary, thus enabling investigations with direct beam intensity
- Strategic independence of 3He as a scarce and expensive resource
- Time-of-flight (TOF) capability, necessary to exploit maximum flux, with a time resolution in the μs regime
- Modularity, improving maintenance characteristics of today’s neutron detectors
Detectors of this kind will be capable of usage in a wide array of neutron instruments at facilities of European interest, which use neutrons to conduct their research, among them the Institute Laue- Langevin (ILL) in France, the Maier-Leibnitz-Zentrum (MLZ, former FRMII) in Germany, Laboratoire Léon-Brillouin (LLB) in France and ISIS in the United Kingdom, which are in operation at the moment and the upcoming ESS. Scientific fields ranging from biology and pharmaceutical sciences over solid-state physics to archeology nowadays rely heavily on neutrons scattering facilities in their research and thus are in need of a reliable, high-quality neutron detection technique, which will be able to perform well at the new high-flux facilities such as ESS. Thus SoNDe will be an enabling technology, allowing scientists to work at the frontiers of science.